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Antiretroviral Therapy Education Paper Critical.

Antiretroviral Therapy Education Paper Critical.


This paper describes HIV, its effects on the body, how it is transmitted, the associated nursing, medications, side effects and possible interactions. The paper also discusses the virus, how it can operate undetected within the human body and the different stages of the virus’ activities within the body. The various available drug treatments are described and how they are used to target a particular stage or aspect of the virus behaviour such as multiplication. Possible side effects of the drugs are listed and how nursing care is crucial in the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS. The risks of early or late nursing intervention are compared, and the diverse types of intervention are mentioned. Also discussed is the importance of offering the patient a choice of complete privacy; i.e. of not revealing his/her condition to the patient’s family if so preferred, and the value of providing the patient with all the information they need and ensuring they have full understanding of their condition, the therapy and the risks, etc.Antiretroviral Therapy Education Paper Critical.


HIV and its effects on the body, transmission of HIV and the associated nursing education, medication classifications, possible side effects, and interactions
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that can stay within the human body for several years undetected and causing silent attacks. Once infected with this virus, there are different stages of the activities the virus goes through; these could be summarized as the early and the late stages. The important aspect of the activities of the virus is the multiplication and the destruction of the white blood cells (CD4 T-cells), where the person’s immune system is being damaged, thus paving the way for numerous other diseases to move into the body. These activities comprise the initial stages and their consequences are what tend to manifest with various early and late symptoms. The transmission occurs basically through unprotected sex, blood contacts or products, and perinatal transmissions.
Several classes of drugs have been developed to manage HIV patients. These include: Entry Inhibitors, Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors and maturations. All of these drugs usually work by targeting a particular stage in the development or replication of the HIV so as to inhibit multiplication, hence helping the patient to live with the condition. Most of those drugs cause different forms of adverse effects which are strongly dependent on the type of medications. The common side effects include: abdominal pain, alopecia, dizziness, gynecomastia, jaundice, nausea and malaise. Nursing interventions and care are essential in management of HIV/AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) patients. They tend to play crucial roles by helping to provide different forms of responsibilities relating to drug use and total care.Antiretroviral Therapy Education Paper Critical.

Compare and contrast risks and benefits of early and delayed initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

Most studies that have been conducted as regards the timing of initiation of ART are those comparing the early and late initiation of ART with patients infected with tuberculosis. Most of those studies clearly indicated that initiating ART therapy after starting anti-tuberculosis therapy is the best mode of managing such kind of patients (Francois et al, 2011). The study by Johansson et al (2010) considering the timing in low income regions found out that early start of treatment with ART is much more beneficial when compared with late initiation especially in such regions and that such patients tend to live longer. The other major consideration in respect of the early and late start of treatment is that which relates to dangers of long-term toxicity that might be caused by early start and also development of resistance by viruses against the medication that is being used; hence making early start not favourable (Johansson et al, 2010).

Describe nursing interventions that are involved with a patient taking ARTs

The nursing interventions for patients taking ARTs are diverse. They are a kind of measure or care that help to ensure that patients adhere to the normal regimen, manage associated changes and side effects well and also prevent any form of issues that could ensue from interaction with, improper use of, or failed medication. Nursing intervention also help patients understand and adhere to their ARTs. These roles are essential to proper management of the HIV patients that are on ART.
Considering the ethics of medical practice and that which relates to ARTs, the choice given to the patient to allow the family to know if he or she is taking the drug is essential. Family are not allowed to interfere without the patient’s consent. Regarding any discussion as regards ART, it should be held in a private setting such as the office or counselling room where the patient and the counsellor will be able to share all that is needed for the patient to know and so that the patient is able to ask relevant questions. Discussing those topics with the patient helps the patient to understand what the therapy is all about, the associated benefits and risks, the costs and the intention of the management of the condition, which is usually not to cure but to help the patient live with the condition with lower risks of the consequences of the condition turning to full-blown AIDS. In this circumstance, the nurse must ensure that documents related to the patient, discussions, use of medication and ethical aspects are considered, so as to ensure privacy.Antiretroviral Therapy Education Paper Critical.

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