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The ERA was created to guarantee equal legal rights for women by ending discrimination based on sex. It was passed by the Congress in 1972. Without ERA, women and men would have to spend a lot of money fighting for their given rights against sex discrimination. The Equal Rights Amendment was the best next step after the Woman’s Suffrage Movement and the Nineteenth Amendment’s existence, which pushed for some rights of women in areas like voting, working and health care. This video show the steps that took place to get the equal rights that women have today (https://www.greatamericandocuments.com/documents/19th-amendment/ ) The Equal Rights Amendment have argued how a woman’s right should be equal in the workplace, further research shows that we still have a long road of fighting to secure a woman’s equal right against sex discrimination. “The Equal Rights Amendment which was the result of the Woman’s Suffrage Movement, and the Nineteenth Amendment’s existence has enhanced equality for women, allowed women to vote, work and access the health care services, and given more women a better education and lifestyle to assist in their households economically.
There were true pioneering women that lead the fight for women’s rights for equality back in the early 1900s. During the time when our men were fighting a war, Alice Paul was orchestrating a march at the White House for voting rights of women. (Targeted News Service). The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) had already begun their fighting for women’s rights being pioneered by Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone. Their tireless effects made some ground and they had millions of followers, but they were unable to gain a win on the voting rights and felt like they failed after African American males were given the rights to vote before women. In steps Alice Paul, who was from New Jersey and highly educated with a PHD at the time, she dives in full speed ahead into fighting for women’s rights. She endured being verbally and physically abused as well as being incarcerated several times. She led marches and protest and eventually was joined with the NAWSA to form an even larger group to take a stand for women’s rights. This joint movement did not go on without the pioneers taking a lot of upward and downward spirals of joining as a group, then falling apart into two different groups, forming new groups (NWP and Woman’s World Party), but in the end winning some historical events. “The 19th Amendment was passed in Congress in 1919 and the law known as Women’s Equality Day was passed on August 26, 1920.
We’ve shown how the opinion of insights on the year of the women taps into the equal rights of women (gender specific), the Republican parties’ involvement and two of the Supreme Court Justice’s involvement and opinions. Evidence has shown for the historicity on discrimination based on sex, examining the economic market inquiry side for and against women. It discusses the ratified and non-ratified states and the unequal pay for women. Years later, other women of the feminist era took on Alice Paul’s fight and the ERA passed Congress in 1972 but did not get the ratifying 38 states needed to pass.” (Dewolf, 2017) As it relates to the women and the relationship to the 19th Amendment, we still need to understand the relationship of women versus men’s rights as they were and are viewed today in the 20th century.
The impact that the 19th Amendment had on other organizations and men were not only dividing households but also dividing politics, women not a part of the movement and labor laws. “The preponderance of these laws limited the hours these women could work each day and each week, prohibited night work for women, and removed women from certain occupations altogether. Some states also required minimum wages for women only, though the Supreme Court declared this unconstitutional in 1923. Although many of these laws had passed before suffrage, a progressive reformer Florence Kelley, had joined the suffrage movement only after they became convinced that women must have a vote to pass more laws to improve the condition of the working women. They were not about to see their decades of effort undermined by the utopian ideals of the militant.” (Freeman, 1988) These changes later challenged other areas against women affecting women’s rights in gay rights, abortion rights, women’s pay wages versus men and many others.
Although the equal rights amendment was passed, there was still so much more inequality amongst women, but it was thought that if women had opened new issues to add to the amendment, that those right’s already in place may be challenged today. The 19th Amendment may be in place for equality for women but in the 20th century women are now fighting for fair wages and an equal place in the workforce versus men, they are still fighting for an equal share of being the breadwinner and not just the women of the house, and they are still fighting for the right to be anything they want to be in this world as an equal party to men.
Other changes that women leaders, feminist and women groups wanted to fight for could change the current dynamics of what has already been put in place for women. The way the laws are written today in court rulings things like child support, child custody battles, and other advantages that women now receive could be disturbed or overturned. “While some ERA opponents may have feared that women would lose advantages they have, the macrolevel pattern reveals that women generally have fewer advantages in non-ERA states than they have in ERA states, at least according to the indicators used in this analysis.” (Nice, 1986). Naysayer’s feared that the Equal Right’s Amendment would deprive men of their rights and beliefs of ownership of their woman and their roles in the household, contrary to their beliefs, the result of the Women’s Suffrage Movement and the ERA, has given more women a better education and lifestyle to assist in their households economically.
Dewolf, R. (2017). The Equal Rights Amendment and the Rise of Emancipationism, 1932-1946. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 38(2), 47-80.
Freeman, J. (1988). Social Revolution and the Equal Rights Amendment. Sociological Forum, 3(1), 145.
Medoff, M. H. (1980). The equal rights amendment: An empirical analysis of sexual discrimination. Economic Inquiry, 18(3), 367.
N.J. Senator Menendez release of a bill to Honor Alice Paul. Menendez Reintroduces Equal Rights Amendment and Bill to Honor Alice Paul. (2013, March 6). Targeted News Service.
Nice, D. C. (1986). State Opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment: Protectionism, Subordination, or Privatization? Social Science Quarterly (University of Texas Press), 67(2), 315-328.
Zahniser, J. D. (n.d.). “How Long Must We Wait?” AMERICAN HISTORY, 50(5), 52-59. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edswah&AN=000361646300019&site=eds-live&scope=site